Thursday, March 08, 2018

History of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research

Polioforever's Blog

The Rockefeller Institute
        originally founded 1901 and moved to these premises with a stated social mission to pasteurize milk and study polio.
Page Content:
Founding RIMR
The Rise of Standard Oil – The Standard Men
Rockefeller family and descendents
Federal Reserve, Rockefeller Center, World Trade Center
RIMR leaders and staff
Rockefeller Hospital, Foundation, China Medical Board, International Health
Eugenics, science, radio-wave gene manipulation
 John D. Rockefeller Sr. was the patron of the Institute (1901) and Foundation (1913), which was administered by his assistant Frederick T. Gates and initiated by his son John D. Rockefeller Jr., (born 1874).  JDR Jr. “took an interest” in healthcare in the 1890s and organized the original founders of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (RIMR) from the circle of William H. Welch and Daniel Coit Gilman (co-founder of Yale Skull and Bones) of Johns Hopkins University.  The popular story of the RIMR’s founding concerns the death of Edith Rockefeller McCormick’s young son in 1901 which also led to the establishment of the McCormick Institute for Infectious Disease in Chicago, although planning for the institutes began many years prior. Christian A. Herter and L. Emmett Holt, both students of  W.H. Welch  at his JHU laboratory, joined with ‘Junior’ to found the New York City RIMR.
In the account of Frank F. Katz, the founders of RIMR met on May 1, 1901 at the Arlington Hotel in Washington D.C.  Neither J.D.Rockefeller Sr. nor Jr. was among the five men who met that day:
A second meeting at the University Club in New York on May 10 included Theobald Smith (see RIMR Princeton, below). Simon Flexner was invited to the third meeting, after which he produced a letter of acceptance to direct the New York institute.
DrJames Ewing (Memorial Hosp./Sloan-Kettering) was reputedly present in the course of founder meetings. Ewing gained national prominence as a great “cancer fighter”, noted for speeches in the 1920s delivered to the elite gatherings at the resort of Lake Mohonk, New York.  He said,  “Cancer is not a single pathological entity, but a great group of diseases, of very varied origin and course….the problem of cancer control must eventually lean heavily upon cancer prevention.”  It was unknown whether or not cancer was contagious or hereditary, much as it is today. Ewing held the belief that “If cancer is really due to an unknown parasite, then prevention is not to be considered; and we are not much better off than the ancient Egyptians, since we may at any time be stung to death by the hobgoblin parasite in its own mysterious way.”
   Ewing was reputed to have said at the 1926 conference, “It requires more-than-average intelligence to accept and act on advice which entails somewhat minute attention to one’s organs. It also entails some time and means. Thus when the means of prevention of cancer become widely known, cancer may become the eliminator of the unwary, the unintelligent, and the unfit.”
   Some of the Rockefeller insiders who organized to ‘fight cancer’ (1913)  later played vital executive roles in the 1933 “rescue of Jewish scholars” through the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Jewish Scholars  (the name was changed to ‘Foreign Scholars’). Select scientists with proven skills in physics, chemistry, biology and a great many social ‘philosophers’ were handpicked by the committee for top jobs in American institutions There is a marvel of timing to the 1933 migrations out of Germany. The core buildings of Rockefeller Center were complete. Massive energy projects “for America’s future” were underway (Hoover Dam, Grand Coulee Dam, Tennessee Valley Authority, etc) and it appears that preparations for WWII and the coming Atomic Bombs were well in hand. Were the secrets of nuclear weapons known years earlier than historical events record? [See page Making The Bomb] A record of the rescue organizations and individuals who left Germany in 1933 is here
   Nelson Rockefeller famously tapped the people involved in these projects for his personal “brain trust” as he swept his way through Washington constructing policy in the aministrations of FDR, Truman and Eisenhower.
    The Rise of Standard Oil
    26 Broadway, NY,NY
“I think it is true that the Pratt family, the Payne-Whitney family (which were one, as all the stock came from Colonel Payne), the Harkness-Flagler family (which came into the company together) and the Rockefeller family controlled a majority of stock during all the history of the Company up to the present time.” –John D. Rockefeller, 1910 [p291, Titan, 1998 by Ron Chernow]
LIST and MAP of the Standard Oil Trust’s constituent companies 1866-1910
“John D. Rockefeller was a D.M. Harkness employee when he gave up grain for oil.”
The Standard Men
Daniel M. Harkness (Flagler’s half-brother, same mother)
Payne’s brother-in-law, William C. Whitney
Payne’s brother-in-law, Charles Bingham
Pratt’s business partner, Henry H. Rogers
George D. Rogers
John D. Archbold, Standard Oil Trust second president
Jabez Bostwick
Henry Morgan Tilford
William Gray Warden
Virgil Kline, Standard’s counsel
   On the strength of a report issued in 1855 by a Yale chemist, professor Benjamin Silliman, concerning the quality of petroleum seeping along ‘Oil Creek’ in northwestern Pennsylvania, Edwin Drake dug the first successful oil well at Titusville in 1859 and the modern petroleum industry was born.,_Pennsylvania.
   John D. Rockefeller was barely 20 years old, but already a seasoned accountant and broker in the trading and shipping of goods. Rockefeller was looking for new partners and markets; on April 1, 1858 he left the Cleveland firm that gave him his first job (everafter known to JDR as “Job Day”, Sep 26, 1855) and joined a new venture, Clark and Rockefeller. “In the 1850s, the whale fisheries had failed to keep pace with the mounting need for illuminating oil, forcing up the price of whale oil and making illumination costly for ordinary Americans.” There was no “cheap illuminant that burned in a bright, clean, safe manner.” [p73, Titan]. A friend of Maurice Clark, Samuel Andrews, who was a self-taught chemist with experience in lard-oil and coal-oil, was “enthralled by the unique properties of kerosene.. convinced it would outshine and outsell other sources of light… Rockefeller and Maurice Clark pledged $4,000 for half the working capital of the new refining venture, Andrews, Clark and Co., placing the twenty-four year old Rockefeller squarely in the oil business in 1863, the year of the Emancipation Proclamation and the stunning Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg… As a commission agent distant from the oil wells, stationed at the commercial crossroads of Cleveland, Rockefeller naturally entered the industry as a refiner.” [p77, Titan].
   “Jay Gould.. had wrested the Erie Railroad from Commodore Vanderbilt in 1868..[and] in the spring.. Jay Gould hatched a secret deal with Rockefeller and Flagler that gave them shares in a subsidiary company called the Allegheny Transportation Company, which was the first major pipeline network serving Oil Creek. Through this deal, [Rockefeller and Flagler] received a staggering 75 percent rebate on oil shipped through the Erie system…[and they made a] promise to supply the Lake Shore with an astonishing sixty carloads of refined oil daily… the prospect of steady shipments was irresistable… From that moment, the railroads acquired a vested interest in the creation of a gigantic oil monopoly that would lower their costs, boost their profits, and generally simplify their lives.” [p113] ..”dealings with the Lake Shore rested on oral agreements that were never committed to paper.”[p114, Titan]
   Standard Oil of Ohio, established in 1870, was the original enterprise of the developing trust. “Standard Oil started out in a modest suite of offices in a four-story building known as the Cushing Block on the Public Square… Rockefeller never allowed his office decor to flaunt the prosperity of his business, lest it arouse unwanted curiosity.” [p132, Titan] “In late 1871, Rockefeller engineered the covert acquisition of Bostwick and Tilford, New York’s premier oil buyers, who owned barges, lighters, and a large refinery at Hunter’s Point on the East River.” [p134] Commodore Vanderbilt discreetly invested $50,000 in Standard Oil that year [of 1871].” [p135, Titan] “The mayhem in Cleveland began when Rockefeller struck a clandestine and richly ironic deal with Tom Scott, the overlord of the Pennsylvania Railroad… Scott had made his reputation during the Civil War by keeping railroad lines open between Washington and the North and winning appointment as an assistant Secretary of War… Andrew Carnegie was a protege of Scott before going into the iron and steel business..”[p135] “During its first two years, Standard Oil had dealt largely in kerosene and naphtha. Then, in 1874, the company branched out into petroleum by-products, selling parrafin wax for chewing gum and residual oil tar and asphalt for road building. Before long the company was manufacturing lubricants for railroads and machine shops, as well as candles, dyes, paints and industrial acids. In 1880, Standard Oil took over the Chesebrough Manufacturing Company in New Jersey in order to strengthen its sales of petroleum jelly.” [p181, Titan]
   For the next two decades, Rockefeller and his associates honed the tactics of consolidation, secret dealings, rumor campaigns and vertical integration that leveraged Standard into the largest known monopolistic ‘trust’ (operating as a cartel of private owners). “In many respects, Standard Oil attained its peak influence in the 1890s. It..marketed 84 percent of all petroleum products sold in America and pumped a third of its crude oil –the highest percentage it ever reached [pumping crude]… Sales boomed in everything from oil stoves to parlor lamps to varnish, soaking up oil supplies and driving up prices… In the late 1890s, Russia temporarily surpassed the United States to become the world’s largest crude-oil producer, capturing 35 percent of the world market.” [p430, Titan]
   Rockefeller’s most effective critic, Ida M. Tarbell,  launched a lengthy expose of Standard Oil in McClure’s Magazine (c.1902-1904), making Rockefeller a household name to the public, hated for Standard’s trademark corruption.
   The Standard “Octopus” was at the top of the oil industry game with virtually no competitors except for the European cartel of the French Rothschilds. JDR was in his fifties, failing of health and ready to retire from the active operations of business. “Around 1894, when William Rainy Harper first proposed a medical school for the University of Chicago, Rockefeller countered with a novel proposal for a medical department devoted mainly or exclusively to research.“[p470, Titan]. It took 3 years more, until 1897 and the energetic drive of Frederick Gates, to bring an organizing spirit to the creation of the RIMR. “It had no initial endowment and was lodged in temporary quarters in a Lexington Avenue loft building at the time… Deviating from custom, Rockefeller consented to the use of his name. The amount he pledged for this project –$200,000 over ten years– was considered spectacular at the time… That Rockefeller placed scientists, not lay trustees, in charge of expenditures was thought revolutionary. This was the institute’s secret formula: gather great minds, liberate them from petty cares, and let them chase intellectual chimeras without pressure or meddling.” [p472, Titan]. “With Flexner signed up, a search committee surveyed Manhattan for a permanent home, and in 1903 bought thirteen acres of farmland..overlooking the East River between Sixty-fourth and Sixty-eighth Streets…[the] so-called Schermerhorn tract [for which] the Rockefellers paid $660,000.” [p474, Titan]. The value of publicity generated by creation of the RIMR was shrewdly appreciated by the Rockefellers who were deeply embattled by trust-busters at the time,  ongoing through the decade until the formal dissolution of Standard in 1911 by majority opinion of the Supreme Court. “Senator Robert La Follette..told reporters afterward, ‘I fear that the court has done what the trusts wanted it to do..'”[p555, Titan]. For Rockefeller, “It proved to be the luckiest stroke of his career. Precisely because he lost the antitrust suit, Rockefeller was converted from a mere millionaire..into something..of history’s first billionaire… As owner of about one quarter of the shares of the old trust, Rockefeller now got a one-quater share of the new Standard Oil of New Jersey plus one quarter of the thirty-three independent subsidiary companies created by the decision… What quickly grew apparent..was that Rockefeller had been extremely conservative in capitalizing Standard Oil and that the spin-off companies were chock-full of hidden assets… And the explosion of the automobile industry created euphoria about the endless growth prospects of the petroleum industry..” [p556, Titan]. “Most momentous of all, the automobile promised to consume that vile, useless by-product, gasoline..” [p430, Titan]
In 1901, drillers in Beaumont, Texas, made a major find in a dreary mound called Spindletop… The Texas oil boom, which spawned five hundred new companies during its first year alone, redrew the industry map… When the Mellons, who had financed Spindletop, offered to sell it to Standard Oil, they were bluntly informed..’Mr. Rockefeller..[will] never put another dime in Texas’. Standard had to sit back and suffer the emergence of a host of competing producers, including Gulf Oil and the Texas Compnay, later called Texaco.” [p431, Titan].
“In January 1901, wildcatters struck.. at Spindletop… [Marcus] Samuel pounced. Within six months, he had sealed a 21-year supply and transport agreement with the field’s top owner, James Guffey. The Texas oil helped Shell to a strong year in 1901.”
“In October 1901, Sir Marcus Samuel of Shell held secret talks at 26 Broadway. Archbold reported to Rockefeller, ‘This company [Shell] represents..the most important distributing Agency for Refined Oil throughout the World, outside our own interests’… Two months later..Samuel signed an agreement instead with Henri Detering of Royal Dutch, creating a major new alliance along with the French Rothschilds.” [p431, Titan] Sir Marcus Samuel was Sheriff of the City of London in 1901, and shortly ascended to become Lord Mayor of London (1902-03),_1st_Viscount_Bearsted
The merger of Shell and Royal Dutch (1907) is noted as the result of negotiations by Edouard Alphonse James de Rothschild, son of Alphonse (Mayer Alphonse James de Rothschild, 1827-1905); the Rothschilds were major owners of the Northern Railway Co. and financed the rails from the Baku oilfields in Azerbaijan to the Caspian. Alphonse founded the oil company Bnito in 1883 which was merged with Royal Dutch Shell in 1911.
In the 1930s, heirs of the Nobel brothers (Robert and Ludvig), who secured oil concessions from tzarist Russia and were financed by the Rothschilds to create Branobel, sold 50% of their assets to Standard Oil of New Jersey. Brother Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), gained his fame from inventing dynamite (nitroglycerin and diatomaceous earth) and holding over 350 patents in chemistry and engineering. Alfred’s fortune posthumously established the Nobel Prize which inaugerated in 1901 with the first prize awarded to Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, inventor of medical x-rays.
 ” ‘If in all our giving, we had never done more than has been achieved by the fine, able, honest men of the Medical Institute,’ [JDR] once remarked,’it would have justified all the money and all the effort we have spent.’…Rockefeller..took more pride in the RIMR than in any of his creations other than Standard Oil.” [p475, Titan]
“Frederick Gates, ..who had a gift for seeing opportunities to exploit.. [had] picked up a medical textbook written by William Osler called The Principles and Practice of Medicine… Osler’s book impressed Gates in very different ways for it presented a paradox. First, it showed that medical science had immense promise. But..that that promise was far from being realized.” [p72, The Great Influenza, John M. Barry]
“Welch offered the position [of RIMR director] to Simon Flexner, who had left the Hopkins [Johns Hopkins University, JHU] to take a highly prestigious professorship at the University of Pennsylvania’s medical school… But [Flexner’s] appointment [at UPenn] had been contentious… There was a roughness about Simon Flexner, something left over from the streets, from his growing up the black sheep in an immigrant Jewish family in Louisville Kentucky… he quit school in the sixth grade. Sullen and flirting with delinquency, he was fired even by an uncle from a menial job…Next he worked for a dry-goods dealer who defrauded people and fled the city. A druggist fired him.  His father gave him a tour of the city jail to try to frighten him into obedience… Flexner hated any kind of tedium and taking orders… [but] what the microscope showed him was not at all tedious… He was fascinated. He began making sudden impossible leaps. In a single year he finished a two-year program at the Louisville College of Pharmacy… He began working for his older brother Jacob, another druggist who also had a microscope; now Simon did not have to sneak to use it. Simultaneously he went to medical school –at night. Flexner later recalled, ‘I never made a physical examination. I never heard a heart or lung sound.’ But he did get an M.D.” [pp73-74, The Great Influenza]
   “Emerson said that an institution is the lengthened shadow of one man, and the institute did reflect Simon Flexner… But in place of the comfort and monastic purpose and intimacy that Welch gave the Hopkins, Flexner made Rockefeller sharp, edgy, cold. Once, when the usefulness ended of horses that had been immunized against a disease, then bled over and over to produce antiserum, he never considered turning them out to pasture; he considered only either selling them for slaughter ‘to manufacturers or they can be bled further, with the idea of sacrificing them’ –bleeding them to death for a final harvest of serum. He could dismiss a person as easily… The room most feared in the institute was Flexner’s office. He could be brutal there, and several prominent scientists were afraid of him… He sought attention for the institute from the press and credit from the scientific community. His own work created controversy.” [p75, The Great Influenza]
   “..The result was a publicity machine. Highly respected investigators mocked the institute for, said one who himself spent time there, ‘frequent ballyhoo of unimportant stuff as the work of genius’ because of ‘administrators and directors impelled by the desire for institutional advertising.’…Flexner..wanted the institute to become a living thing… It was a place of excitement, of near holiness… the institute ‘an organism, not an establishment.’ ” [pp77-78, The Great Influenza] “Flexner saw the hospital as a testing ground for ideas generated by laboratory scientists. The scientists would control experimental therapies. The doctors treating the patients would do little more than play the role of a technician caring for a lab animal.” [p81, The Great Influenza]
   “[The] Carnegie Foundation commissioned Simon Flexner’s brother Abraham to survey medical education. Although not a doctor, Flexner had been an undergraduate at the Hopkins –he said that even among undergraduates ‘research was the air we breathed’– and had already demonstrated both a ruthless, unforgiving judgement and a commitment to advancing model educational institutions. In his first job after college, [Abraham] had taught in a Louisville high school –where he failed his entire class… Later [1930] he would create the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, and personally recruit Albert Einstein to it… In 1910, the same year the Rockefeller Institute Hospital opened, his report Medical Education in the United States and Canada appeared. It soon became known simply as ‘The Flexner Report’… Flexner concluded that more than 120 of the 150-plus medical schools in operation should be closed.” [pp83-84, The Great Influenza]
University of Chicago: First director of the McCormick Institute, Ludvig Hektoen,
Rockefeller Family, businesses and descendents  Patriarch, John D.”Rockefeller kept his children hermetically cut off from the world and hired governesses to educate them at home. Aside from church, they never engaged in outside social or civic functions… John Jr. [later reflected]…’We had no childhood friends, no school friends.’ “ [p124, Titan]
The Standard families became the Social Set of Palm Beach, Florida
   John D. Rockefeller Jr. married Abby Green Aldrich on October 9, 1901. Abby was the daughter of Senator Nelson W. Aldrich from Rhode Island, who attended the ultra-private Jekyll Island, GA. meeting to establish the Federal Reserve**. In 1900, ‘Jr’  financed the building of Memorial Hospital (Sloan-Kettering*) on the campus of Cornell. He directed Standard Oil and U.S. Steel until 1910. The RIMR incorporated a teaching hospital in that year. In 1911, the Standard oil monoply was broken up by the Sherman Anti-trust Act, which actually increased Standard’s market share from the 80th percentile into the 90th. In 1913, Jr. established the ‘Bureau of Social Hygiene’ and the Rockefeller Foundation. Over the next three decades, JDR Jr. funded the American Society for the Control of Cancer (forerunner to the American Cancer Society),  excavations in Luxor Egypt, the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg, the building of Rockefeller Center, the Museum of Modern Art in NYC, donated the property for the United Nations and built the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem which is home to the Dead Sea Scrolls. JDR Jr. and Abby had one daughter and five sons.
  *1950 memorandum describing Sloan-Kettering, chartered in 1945: “The Institute connects with Memorial Hospital and the new city-owned Ewing Hospital… Technically SKI is a subsidiary of Memorial Hospital. There is also a tie-in in operating arrangements with the nearby Cornell University Medical Center, New York Hospital, etc.  Dr. [James B.] Conant, [Arthur] Compton, Dr. [Detlev] Bronk, as well as Lewis Strauss and Alfred Sloan, are trustees of SKI. Lawrence [sic] Rockefeller has recently become President of Memorial Hospital..which has a relatively large board [of trustees], including Lewis Strauss…Dr. [Cornelius ‘Dusty’] Rhoads..pointed out that much of the work is being directed toward research closely related to chemical warfare and perhaps not so distant from biological warfare matters..” [memo written by William T. Golden]
Fed Reserve history: : Senator Nelson Winthrop Aldrich..”of Rhode Island [was] a former banker..allied with the House of Morgan; he had written the Gold Standard Act of 1900 and was the Senate’s leading protectionist… After touring Europe to study its banking system and techniques, Aldrich and the other commissioners returned convinced that the United States should have a central bank controlled by bankers and issuing notes based on commercial paper. This was a surprising reversal for Aldrich, who previously had opposed..significant changes.. believing that only bond related notes should be issued…[Paul] Warburg met Nelson Aldrich in 1907…they became a team after Warburg proposed his ‘United Reserve System’ 1910…” [pp18-22, A-Foregone-Conclusion..]
 The brothers
Abby (‘Babs’), 1903-1976; “Babs, the sole daughter, was most often at loggerheads with her parents… She hated churchgoing…refused to follow tradition and hustle for pocket change… she started to sneak cigarettes..[and] brazenly continued to smoke..[then] added a taste for bootleg liquor… In her later years, she was a substantial contributor to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center..” [p652, Titan]
John Davison III, 1906-1978; attended Princeton; “..unlike his younger brothers, he was not allowed to attend the progressive Lincoln School, which had been started in 1917 with a grant from the General Education Board… he began to manifest in adolescense the same litany of psychosomatic ailments (headaches, stomach pains and so forth) that afflicted his father… The least-known of the brothers, John was the most conscientious philanthropist. Besides the Rockefeller Foundation, he chaired Lincoln Center and the Population Council and became the most significant force behind the Asia Society.” [pp654-655, Titan]
Nelson Aldrich., 1908- 1979; attended Dartmouth;”Not since Big Bill (William Avery Rockefeller, great-grandfather) had there been such a fun-loving, narcissistic Rockefeller…  ‘..Grandfather has never mentioned the Company to us,’ Nelson wrote to his father, ‘nor has he ever told us anything about his stupendous work in organizing the Company and leading it for so many years’… Junior mailed his son the hagiographic [William] Inglis manuscript… Nelson did not realize that he was only reading a pretty family fiction; the Rockefeller children were being duped, inadvertantly, by family public relations.” [pp656-657, Titan]
Laurance Spelman, 1910-2004; “As a philosophy major at Princeton, Laurance shed many of his boyhood religious beliefs in the face of rational scrutiny.” [p658, Titan]
Winthrop, 1912-1973; “During the 1933 summer vacation, he toiled as a roustabout in the Texas oil fields for Humble Oil, which was [by then] owned by Jersey Standard… [Winthrop] continued to favor booze and cards… After Yale, Winthrop resumed work for Humble Oil… Returning to New York, Winthrop trained at the Chase National Bank, worked for the Socony–Vacuum Oil Company– the former Standard Oil of New York– and served as vice chairman of the Greater New York Fund… Much to the surprise of his family, Winthrop was elected Arkansas governor in 1966..” [pp660-661, Titan]
David, 1915- ; “David was pudgy as a child but was spared the rough attention of his older brothers… Like a miniture banker, he moved with serene self-confidence…Steady and methodical, he experienced no Harvard, graduating cum laude in 1936…his senior thesus on Fabian socialism…he completed a doctorate in economics at the University of Chicago… David arrived at free-market conclusions and criticized monopolies as counterproductive… [He] dedicated his career to the Chase Manhattan Bank rising to the chairman’s post..” [p661-662, Titan]
“By the 1920s, the Rockefeller Foundation was the largest grant-making foundation on earth and America’s leading sponsor of medical science, medical education, and public health. John D. Rockefeller Sr. had established himself as the greatest lay benefactor of medicine in history. Of the $530 million he gave away during his lifetime, $450 million went directly or indirectly into medicine.” [p570, Titan]
“Science would be the magic wand waved over any project… In 1917, when advising his father to pump another fifty million dollars into the RIMR, Junior explained his preference for medicine: ‘This is a field in which there can be no controversy, so that I think the possibility of criticism as regards the use of the fund or its potential dangers would be almost nothing. There is no limit to the development of medical work.’ ” [p568, Titan]
 Rockefeller Plaza and the golden statue of Prometheus The statue inscription reads “Prometheus, teacher in every art, brought the fire that hath proved to mortals a means to mighty ends
In 1927, prior to the Wall Street Crash and the construction of Rockefeller Center,  Standard Oil and I.G. Farben formalized a joint partnnership that created the world’s largest chemical consortium. Howard Ambruster published a critical work in 1947 on the interwar history of the Standard-Farben venture: “Treason’s Peace, German Dyes and American Dupes”.  Ambruster wrote, “ is and must be recognized as a cabalistic organization which..operates a far-flung and highly efficient espionnage machine –the ultimate purpose being world conquest and a world super-state directed by Farben.”
Rockefeller Center — originally planned as a site for the Metropolitan Opera Company by its chairman Otto Kahn (Kuhn, Loeb& Co); property owner Columbia University and JDRJr. as developer, signed a contract in late 1928 that gave Junior full financial responsibility for the $3.8 million yearly lease. The Metropolitan Company pulled out of the deal after the stock market crash of ’29, but plans for the site quickly regrouped:
“Junior had become closely involved with a venture in the business of radio that was of unprecendented scale and significance, namely what..[was] dubbed ‘Radio City’. One can safely say that quite suddenly in the late 1920s, the radio industry became one of the defining features of Junior’s life… To these ends [Junior] underwrote broadcasts of James G. MacDonald..on matters related to world peace.  But it was the development of the Rockefeller Center..that came to focus Junior’s attention on matters related to the business of radio…[He] had been assured..that he could realize as much as $5.5 million a year in rent from the property… he signed a contract with Columbia [University] in October 1928, leasing the property for 24-year period… [but the Metropolitan withdrew after the stock collapse]. It was not long before he was approached by a group that was consolidate its operations and build up-to-date facilities. This was the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) that had been formed on October 17, 1919 largely through the efforts of Owen D. Young. It brought together the assets and patents of General Electric (GE), the American Telegraph and Telephone Company (AT&T), Westinghouse, and the United Fruit Company.”
Rockefeller Center legal business was handled by one of the family’s designated Wall Street firms, “Milbank, Tweed” (and partners), joined after WWII by John J. McCloy, the Salk Institute’s founding chairman ; ; Nelson Rockefeller exerted a particular dominance over management of the Center and in 1948 the Rockefeller Brothers Fund bought the Center.
The World Trade Center
WTC was a project of the brothers, David and Nelson: “The original idea for a world trade center in New York is generally credited to David Rockefeller… In fact the idea was proposed soon after World War II, a decade before [David] got involved… With the help of his brother, Nelson Rockefeller, who was governor [1959-1973] of the state of NY at the time, David Rockefeller got the Port of New York [and New Jersey] Authority involved..a public organization [that] functions like a private corporation…
   “Rockefeller commissioned early designs for the WTC in 1958, the Port Authority got involved in 1960, and the initial plans were made public in 1961. Then things slowed down..[as] the Port Authority slogged through fiscal problems..[and] the unpopular task of evicting [people and businesses] occupying the building site… excavation didn’t actually start until 1966. By that time, the design and scope of the project had changed completely..”; WTC chronology  shows that David Scholtzproposed the WTC in 1945 (after Bretton Woods) and Winthrop Aldrich was appointed in 1946 by the NY legislature to develop the project.
Winthrop Aldrich (Abby’s brother)
                                         Rockefellers, eugenics, and population control  (video)
The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, est 1901-03
The Rothschild-funded Pasteur Institute, est.1887 in Paris, provided a model for the organization of the RIMR. Baron Edmond de Rothschild invoked the Pasteur and the RIMR both as models meeting his approval for financing the future Weizmann Institute of Science, which in 1914 was yet an issue of contention among Zionists in its proposed form as a Hebrew University: “On January 3, 1914…Weizmann met with Baron Edmund de Rothschild for three quarters of an hour…Rothschild made it clear that he was only interested in a research institute similar to the Pasteur..or a Rockefeller Institute ‘where about 30 to 40 good men would work at scientific research’…the baron wished to have Paul Erhlich’s imprimatur on the research institute…Above all, the baron insisted on discretion and in keeping his name out of the news..[and] the most important demand that the idea of a university be abandoned, for the time being, in favor of a research institute..” –Jehuda Reinharz, Chaim Weizmann; The Making of a Zionist Leader, pp395-396.
The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research followed a similar course; initially devoted to private research advancing in time to become Rockefeller University.
  Frederick Taylor Gates, “lapsed” Baptist clergyman, philanthropic advisor and co-founder of the University of Chicago with JDR (1889), and sometime medical researcher who was injecting soldiers at Ft. Riley, Kansas in the winter of 1918 with experimental vaccine  The RIMR was AuxilliaryLab. #1 for the US military during WWI.
 William H. Welch,  first president and scientific director of the RIMR
William Welch, son of a wealthy family of pharmacists from Norfolk Connecticut, was recruited to Johns Hopkins University by John Shaw Billings, the founder of the National Library system for both government and the public. Before JHU had a medical school, biology laboratories were arranged for Welch and William Osler to train young men in the new field of microbiology. Welch was a graduate of Yale and a devoted Skull & Bonesman who also became the president of the National Academy of Sciences (1913-1917) and board chairman of the Eugenics Record Office. The RIMR, William Welch, and Simon Flexner who was trained by Welch, had an enormous role during WWI and the pandemic Spanish Flu that swept the globe in 1918-1919, recounted by author John Barry in “The Great Influenza”.
More about the Flexner brothers, Simon, Bernard and Abraham is here:
2009 Board of Trustees
David Rockefeller, Honorary Chair and Life Trustee
Russell L. Carson, Chair
David I. Hirsh, Ph.D., Vice Chair
Henry R. Kravis, Vice Chair
Marnie S. Pillsbury, Vice Chair
Richard E. Salomon, Vice Chair
Paul Nurse, President
Presidents of RIMR/Rockefeller University
 Simon Flexner – Dir/pres 1902-1935; founding director
 Herbert Spencer Gasser – Dir/pres 1935-1953; Nobel Prize in Physiology 1944; Chemical Warfare Service pharmacologist;cc=wiarchives;view=text;rgn=main;didno=uw-whs-mss00132
 Detlev Wulf Bronk – Dir/pres 1953-1968; member of Majestic 12 Group (UFO investigation) ;  electrical engineering, physics and physiology; “credited with formulating the modern theory of the science of biophysics“; Bronk spent his early career at U Penn organizing and sponsored by the Eldridge R. Johnson Foundation; adviser to National Aeronautics and Space Council and Atomic Energy Commission
 Frederick Seitz – 1968-1978; physics and Materials research, studied under Eugene Wigner; After [WWII] he directed the atomic energy training program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee ,National Space Society Board of Governors; Guggenheim Foundation Chairman 1976-83
 Joshua Lederberg – 1978-1989; exobiologist; codiscoverer of bacterial conjugation with E.coli; coordinator of the first “artificial intelligence” project applied to chemobiology – the mid-60s DENDRAL super-computer at Stanford
Lederberg’s mentor, Edward Tatum
 David Baltimore – 1989-1991, received his Ph.D at Rockefeller University in 1964;  Salk Institute Fellow; Nobel Prize in 1975;  also in 1975, Baltimore was an organizer of the Asilomar [Monterey,CA] conference on recombinant DNA; David Baltimore is an expert on the immune system  and AIDS.”; instrumental in establishing the Whitehead Institute at MIT in 1982 and served as its first director; president of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) from 1997 to 2006;
Asilomar photos:; for recombinant DNA made with E.coli and SV40, see Paul Berg and Maxine Singer
 Torsten N. Wiesel – 1992-1998; Wiesel came to the U.S. in 1955 and was appointed to head the Rockefeller neurobiology lab in 1984
Thomas P. Saknar – 2002–
 Sir Paul Maxime Nurse – current; yeast geneticist; “director-general and head of the Cell Cycle laboratory at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund in London…[Nurse] identified the first protein in humans whose role in the cell is analogous to the role of the proteins in yeast.”
The INSTITUTE Staff : early years ; Rockefeller University’s collection of staff papers
Director, Simon Flexner, from 19031936, editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine (founded by William H. Welch in 1896)
 Samuel James Meltzer – (1851-1920) joined the RIMR in 1904;  initially studied to be a rabbi; emigrated to US in 1883 from western Russia; studied pathology at Columbia
 Hideyo Noguchi – (1876-1928) graduated from Tokyo University in 1897 and worked under S. Kitasato where he met Simon Flexner; came to the US in 1901 and was hired as Flexner’s assistant at UPenn, following him to the RIMR in 1904; died from yellow fever infection acquired in Africa
 Phoebus T. Levene – (1869-1940) joined the RIMR in 1905; born and educated in Russia, emigrated to NYC in 1892; went on to direct gene research at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL), Eugenics Research Association. (CSHL was a Carnegie-funded institution) . CSHL trained international geneticists and was enfolded into the larger complex of Brookhaven National Lab.
 Jacques (Isaak) Loeb – (1859-1924 ) joined the RIMR in 1910; received an ‘elite Jewish education’, attended Univ. of Berlin and Munich; emigrated to the US in 1891 to work at Bryn Mawr and in 1892, the Univ. of Chicago; recruited from his laboratory at the University of California Berkeley (1901-1910) by S.Flexner; brother Leo Loeb at Washington Univ.(St. Louis) became a pioneer cancer researcher. Jacques Loeb is known for his work on tropism and artificial parthenogenesis. While at RIMR, he founded the Journal of General Physiology with Walter Osterhout and published “The Mechanistic Conception of Life” among other writings.
Walter J. V. Osterhout – (1871-1964) Jacques Loeb’s protege who succeeded him as chief of RIMR physiology in 1924; “During these years Osterhout was also associated with the marine laboratories in Pacific Grove, Woods Hole, and Bermuda, and with the *Agassiz Museum; .. founding editor of the Journal of General Physiology.”; Agassiz Museum, named for Swiss scientist Louis Agassiz who immigrated to accept a post at Harvard in 1947. Agassiz’s daughter Ida married Henry Lee Higginson [Lee, Higginson & Co., Boston brokerage under the leadership of Jerome D. Greene at the time of its demise in 1932]
Peter K. Olitsky – (1886-1964) joined the RIMR in 1917; “one of the first scientists to isolate messenger RNA  ;1923 article about transmitting the human ‘cold’,9171,716949,00.html
 Eugene Lindsay Opie -(1873-1971) one of the first class of medical students to receive MDs from JohnsHopkinsU; recruited from Washington University, St. Louis where he later returned as a professor until 1923; became the director of the Henry Phipps Institute of Tuberculosis at UPenn; Cornell; and lastly back at the Rockefeller.
 Francis Peyton Rous – discovered transmissable cancer in 1911; co-edited Rockefeller’s publication, the Journal of Experimental Medicine, with Flexner from 1921-36 and onwards until 1970
 Alexis Carrel – (1873-1944) ;joined the RIMR in 1906; from Lyon, France; vascular surgeon and author of ‘Man the Unknown’ (1935); proponent of ‘positive’eugenics; Carrel became a close friend of aviator Charles Lindbergh with whom he collaborated on a project to develop an artificial heart;  founder/director of the Carrel Foundation for the Study of Human Problems; indicted in France by the press for Nazi collaboration which was never proved
 Robert Means Yerkes – performed psychological and intelligence (eugenic) testing for the military WWI, developed the Yerkes-Bridge Point Scale for Intelligence used by the Eugenic Records Office at Cold Spring Harbor; went on to Yale from 1924-1944. Yerkes was a pro-eugenics, anti-immigration activist whose body of work reflected his ‘Nordic” bias.
 Louise Pearce – researcher, went on to help establish the American Social Hygiene Association
 Florence Rena Sabin –  Tuberculosis expert educated at Smith College; grad work in Germany 1900-1902; went on to design the Colorado Public Health System
 Karl Landsteiner – (see separate biog. page) first to identify poliovirus in 1908;  emigrated from Vienna to join the Rockefeller in 1922
 Cornelius Rhoads  – joined RIMR in 1928; graduate of Harvard Medical School; staff pathologist for Rockefeller Hospital. In 1931 Rhoads joined the Commission for the Study of Anemia in Puerto Rico, where an unsent letter he wrote condemning Puerto Ricans caused a scandal, reported in Time magazine as “Porto Ricochet”, Feb 15, 1932. Susan E. Lederer reviews the history of this incident:; “During World War II, after some work with the National Research Council and in the OSRD, he and members of his OSRD unit went into the chemical warfare service of the Army, in which he remained as a Colonel from 1943 to 1945.”; Director of Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research.
 Max Theiler – (1899-1972) son of a prominent South African veterinarian originally from Basel, Switzerland; Theiler trained in London and at Harvard and joined the RIMR in 1930, scooping the competition to create a yellow fever vaccine for which he won a Nobel in 1951. He remained in the US for the rest of his life though chose not to become a citizen.
 Wendell M. Stanley – (1904-1971) Indiana born Stanley joined the RIMR in 1931. In 1935 he crystallized (powdered) the Tobacco Mosaic Virus. He left RIMR to found, build, and direct the Virus Laboratory at UC Berkeley in 1948. Stanley crystallized poliovirus in 1954. The next year, he contributed vital testimony about the “Cutter Lab” contaminated polio vaccine case which cleared Cutter from liability.
 Max Bergmann – (1884-1944) joined in 1933 as a “displaced scholar”; former director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Leather Research;”In 1937, he became a full member of the Institute…The collection (Record Group 450 B454 of the Rockefeller University Archives) primarily documents the laboratory research and administration of biochemist Dr. Max Bergmann during his tenure at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, now the Rockefeller University, from 1934 until his death in 1944. The records are particularly focused on the research he conducted in the 1940’s on problems of interest to the U.S. Armed Forces, namely the synthetic, analytical, and inorganic problems in chemical warfare and B�4 toxicity, especially mustard gases.”
 Albert B. Sabin – (1906-1993) joined the RIMR in 1935; born and raised in Bialystock Russia, emigrating to NYC in 1921; relocated to Cincinnati;  famous for the oral polio vaccine which was created with the help of the Soviets
Director of RIMR hospital, Thomas M. Rivers ; from 1937 –1955 Rivers was also the Director of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) or The March of Dimes, founded by FDR. “Thomas Milton Rivers came to the hospital of the Rockefeller Institute in 1922 with the aim of establishing a research program in the new field of viral diseases… When Rivers was made director of the Institute’s hospital in 1937, he was a world authority on virus research, a field that was then undergoing rapid growth as part of the nascent molecular biology program. During his directorship (1937-1955), Rivers was an active coordinator of medical war projects, and a principal organizer of research programs within the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (N.F.I.P); the N.F.I.P. became a major pursuit after his retiring from the Institute.” ; Rivers oversaw coordination of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission.
WatsonCrick & Wilkins, discoverers of DNA structure (1953, led to 1962 Nobel Prize) worked at the Rockefeller. Francis Crick spent the rest of his lengthy post-Nobel career at the Salk Institute. J.D. Watson became the director of Cold Spring Harbor Lab.
The Rockefeller Sanitary Commission, founded October 1909 — “The Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease was organized on October 26, 1909, as a result of a gift of $1,000,000.00 from John D. Rockefeller, Sr. who hoped that a five-year campaign against the disease would lead to the “adoption of well-considered plans for a cooperative movement of the Medical Profession, Public Health Officials, Board of Trade, Churches, Schools, the Press, and other agencies.” The gift was accepted on October 26, 1909, by William Welch, Simon Flexner, Charles W. Stiles, Edwin Alderman, David Houston, P. P. Claxton, J. Y. Joyner, Walter H. Page, H. B. Frissell, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Frederick T. Gates, and Starr Murphy…. The eradication effort was to be a joint project between the states and the Sanitary Commission. The Commission was to furnish the initial impetus and to serve as an information agency for the states. It also paid the salaries of the field personnel. Offices were opened in Washington in January, 1910… ”
ROCKEFELLER  HOSPITAL opened in 1910 with Rufus Ivory Cole as its first director Dr. Thomas Francis Jr. was on staff as a department chief and “family physician” to the Rockefellers
Alfred Einstein Cohn (1879-1957),”one of the first cardiologists in the U.S., became an associate and assistant physician at the hospital of The Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research in 1911. Within a few years he became the leader of the laboratory and clinical service devoted to the study of heart disease, a position he held until his retirement in 1944.”
Rockefeller FOUNDATION, chartered by New York State in 1913 :
signed by:
John D. Rockefeller and John D. Rockefeller Jr.
Henry Pratt Judson – Pres. of University of Chicago
Simon Flexner – Director of RIMR,  NYC
Starr Jameson – legal counsel
Charles W. Eliot – Pres. of Harvard
“The list of officers of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1913-63 reveals a great deal about this organization. The four chairmen of the board have been John D. Rockefeller. Jr. 1917,1939, Walter D. Stewart, 1939-50, John Foster Dulles, 1950-52, and John D. Rockefeller 3rd, 1952-63… Examining the dominant members of the Rockefeller Foundation, we find men whose lives have been devoted to war and revolution, chemical warfare, international intrigue, and mass murder; …what we do not find is anyone who has ever engaged in any charitable endeavor.” –Eustace Mullins, The World Order; A study in the Hegemony of Parasitism, Ch7 The Foundations
The Foundation began in 1902 as the General Education Board, a mirror of the Carnegie Foundation. Simon Flexner’s brother Abraham Flexner* became president of both General Education Boards. In 1928, significant breakthroughs in quantum physics appear to have substantiated the consolidation of the International Education Board (founded 1923), which undertook the direct financing of individual physicists who were dedicated to the production of nuclear weapons as well as other select projects of genetics and drug development. Abraham Flexner, under the auspices of Carnegie’s board in 1910, created the “Flexner Report”  to reform North American medical education to the ‘German model’ and eliminate ‘non-aligned’ institutions. Grants and publicity were used to leverage universities into cooperation.  As the influential president of Carnegie and Rockefeller education boards, Abraham Flexner carried the model to the reformation of all public schooling.
*Abraham Flexner co-founded the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, a hub for biological study during/after the Manhattan Project; founded Princeton’s Institute of Advanced Study (with L. Bamberger and Julia Fuld funding); influenced the founding of Vanderbilt Medical School; see Simon Flexner page links
George Foster Peabody*,..deputy chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York since 1914, and noted “philanthropist” who organized the General Education Board for the Rockefellers, stated that he supported the Bolshevik form of state monopoly…Because the Federal Reserve Bank of New York was controlled by five New York banks who owned 53% of its stock, and because these five banks were directly controlled by N.M. Rothschild & Sonsof London, we can only conclude that these.. men were merely stating the preferences of their employer…  Many Americans are puzzled by the relentless devotion of the Rockefeller Foundation to financing Communist organizations in many parts of the world. This dedication to Communism can be traced back to a crucial moment in the Bolsheviks’ march to power. In 1917, Mackenzie King had established a lifelong relationship with John D. Rockefeller, Jr. whom he met in June, 1914. They had been born in the same year, 1874, and seemed to agree on everything. Soon, King was working closely with Frederick T. Gates and Ivy Lee to further the Rockefeller “philantropies”, which seemed to view Communism as the ideal vehicle to bring about world brotherhood…The Rockefellers helped Mackenzie King obtain government contracts for the Canadian Army during World War I… the Rockefellers appointed Mackenzie King head of the Rockefeller Foundation dept. of Industrial Research at a salary of $30,000 a year (the average wage in the U.S. at that time was $500 year). Frank P. Walsh testified before a U.S. Commission that the Rockefeller Foundation was a cloak for the Rockefeller plan to lead organized labor into slavery… John D. Rockefeller instructed his press agent, Ivy Lee in 1925 to promote Communism in the U.S. and to sparkplug a public relations drive which culminated in 1933 with the U.S. government recognition of Soviet Russia. In 1927 Standard Oil of New Jerseybuilt a refinery in Russia, after having been promised 50% of the Caucasus oil production…The Standard Oil operation has always been directed by the most professional bankers in the world, the Rothschilds; consequently, the Rothschilds through their agents, Kuhn, Loeb Co. have maintained close supervision of the “Rockefeller” fortune.”
*Peabody was a director of the polio philanthropy Warm Springs Foundation
[1996] “Grant Enables Technology Transfer for Edible Vaccine” : “Researchers at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research Inc. at Cornell now will begin exchanging new vaccine information with scientists in developing countries, starting with Mexico, thanks to a new Rockefeller Foundation grant…[the]research eventually will lead to an edible HIV vaccine”
William Boyce Thompson, founder of the Boyce Thompson Institute in (Yonkers) Westchester County (NY), and a funder of the Bolsheviks, was the largest shareholder of Chase Bank.; “The American Red Cross Mission to Russia was a private venture of William B.Thompson, who publicly proffered partisan support to the Bolsheviks.”; Zionist Bernard Flexner was a coordinator of the Red Cross mission (to Russia and Roumania) which left the west coast, sailed to Vladivostok and crossed Manchuria by train, arriving in Petrograd in September 1917. Thompson was also a governor of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York: “The Federal Reserve Bank of New York was at 120 Broadway. The vehicle for this pro-Bolshevik activity was American International Corporation –at 120 Broadway.” 120 Broadway was called the Equitable Life Buildng. Law partners Franklin D. Roosevelt and Basil O’Connor maintained their offices at the Equitable, along with Guaranty Trust, Bernard Baruch, New York Bar Association, General Electric, Guggenheim Exploration, Stone and Webster, E.H. Harriman and the Bankers Club on the top floor.  In 1930, Chase Bank bought out Equitable Trust
Current (since 2005) President of the Rockefeller Foundation, Judith Seitz Rodin; Chairman, Richard Parsons
In 1914, the Rockefeller Foundation established the China Medical Board, and in 1915 took over Peking Union Medical College . Rededicated in 1921, Peking Union was staffed with RIMR alumni; Alfred E. Cohn, Henry Houghton, Ann G. Kuttner, Louise Pearce, Carl Ten Broeck and Donald Van Slyke. Cofounder, consultant, and eventual director of the China Medical Board was Roger Sherman Greene II [resigned in 1934], brother of Rockefeller Foundation Secretary Jerome Davis Greene (1913-1916), former Secretary of the Harvard Corporation(1905-1910) and president of Lee, Higginson & Co from 1917-1932. [Jock Whitney joined Lee Higginson in 1929, see Nelson A. Rockefeller page]
 1917, Peking Union Med. professor Edmund V. Cowdry Cowdry traveled extensively in Africa on medical assignments for the Rockefeller.
RIMR,”Department of Animal Pathology” (DAP), Princeton New Jersey, formally founded in 1915 to study disease in swine, specifically ‘hog cholera’ which was provided for by a grant of $50,000 from James J. Hill of the Great Northern Railroad.
 Director, Theobald Smith (born Schmitt) , ( Bureau of Animal Industry, Harvard)
RIMR Princeton pressured New Jersey to exempt it from state ‘animal cruelty’ laws
In 1937, DAP staff researchers inserted human DNA into hemaephilus influenzae bacteria  using ‘bacteriophage’ techniques and infected a herd of New Jersey swine, giving them a prostrating sickness. Is this the source of human-avian-swine flu genes passing as H1N1?  Mixed species virus of this type, called “unsubtypable H1N1”,  has been tracked by the CDC since (at least) the late 1990s. The military ‘flu’ records from the ’90s suggest it is present in the recruit population at a rate approximating 20%. In 1937, Albert Sabin had a laboratory at the DAP.
1916, creation of the International Health Board , focused on tropical disease, laboratory facilities, public health and pest control in Latin and South America, the Middle East, and Asia. From the Rockefeller archives: “Organizational History: In 1913, the Rockefeller Foundation established The International Health Board (known as the International Health Commission until 1916, when its name changed to the International Health Board) for the purpose of extending the work of the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease. In addition to hookworm, the Board’s early public health activities included control of yellow fever, malaria, tuberculosis, public health education, virus studies and related research. In 1927, the Board was disbanded. Its work was continued by the new International Health Division of the Foundation. In 1951, the International Health Division was merged with the medical sciences program and public health activity was de-emphasized.”    Hookworm disease eradication is now a priority of the Sabin Vaccine Institute with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
After 1916, he Rockefeller Foundation made contracts with the Brazilian government to eradicate yellow fever with the application of Paris Green pesticide . In 1928, after the program had begun,  Rio de Janeiro experienced a large outbreak ; Yellow Fever — ” It is thought that the disease originated in Africa and spread to the Americas in the 17th and 18th centuries through trading ships. The flavivirus that causes yellow fever was first identified in 1928 and the first vaccine against the disease was produced at the Rockefeller Institute in New York in 1937.”  The WHO gives statistical background on the spread of YF and the  resulting encephalitis (and viral hepatitis) from vaccines  . West Nile is also a flavivirus and its leading expert, Charles Rice, has a lab at Rockefeller University and a contract with Project BioShield through his pharmaceutical house Arpath LLC.
Hilary Koprowski went to work for Rockefeller in Brazil in 1939. Sometime after 1940, he came to the RIMR. Koprowski went on to work for LeDerle after WWII and finally to direct the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, by the campus of the University of Pennsylvania. Koprowski is suspected of initiating the AIDS epidemic in Africa through administering polio vaccine in 1957, the year of peak atmospheric fallout.
1917 — Paris, France — RF field office: “The International Health Board (IHB) of the Rockefeller Foundation opened an office in (wartime) Paris in 1917 as the headquarters for the work of the Commission for the Prevention of Tuberculosis in France. In 1922, anticipating the transfer of the tuberculosis work to the French and the expansion of RF work in Europe, the IHB agreed to share space and administrative expenses with other divisions of the Foundation, and the medical education, medical sciences, natural sciences, social sciences, and studies divisions were subsequently represented in Paris.  The Paris office served as the Foundation’s fiscal agent for European affairs, administering payments of appropriations made by the Foundation to projects in Europe. The office also administered appropriations made at the discretion of the Paris officers and acted as fiscal agent for other U.S. organizations. The office was closed in 1959.”
Commission for the Study of Anemia in Puerto Rico
William B. Castle, hematologist at Thorndike Memorial Laboratory
“Castle in 1931 enlisted the interest of the Rockefeller Foundation in  underwriting an expedition to Puerto Rico to assess the efficacy of his liver  extract in patients with tropical sprue [fatal anemia]. Under Rockefeller auspices, an  entourage consisting of Castle, Cornelius P. (Dusty) Rhoads, and a group of  assistants set sail for this subtropical island..[where] a majority of its citizens were laid low by the coendemic ravages  of tropical sprue and hookworm-induced anemia. At the Presbyterian Hospital in  San Juan, in which their laboratories were located, Castle and Rhoads were at  first fascinated by the rich aromas borne by the breeze… Tropical sprue patients had megaloblastic anemia and severe glossitis similar to  that of untreated pernicious anemia, but these patients failed to respond to  oral liver extract or to combinations of beef muscle and normal gastric juice.  Furthermore, many of them had ample amounts of acid gastric juice, which  contained normal concentrations of intrinsic factor, as determined with the  “human reticulocyte assay” performed on frozen specimens mailed to the  expedition’s anchor man in Boston, Maurice B. Strauss. In the treatment of  sprue, Castle’s home-brewed parenteral liver extract paid off wonderfully,  patients responded promptly, and the debilitating anemia of sprue was  established as resulting from “intestinal impermeability,” later referred to as  malabsorption syndrome. The pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for initiating  tropical sprue, and its curiously spotty distribution, still have no tidy  explanation, but since the Castle-Rhoads expedition empirical prophylaxes with  folate [B6] and cobalamin [B12] have eradicated this melancholy menace in Puerto Rico.” 
>>polioforever – pernicious anemia (or aplastic anemia) was a hazard of radiation work. Marie Curie, her daughters and son-in-law, Frederic Joliot-Curie died of this ailment.
WORLD WAR II – Rockefeller funding and staff composed the majority of Armed Forces Epidemiological Board members. Eight of the 15 medical honorees at the Polio Hall of Fame were commissioned AFEB officers.; 
EUGENICS: “Molecular Vision: Rockefeller Science”, based on the book by Lily Kay and the laboratories of Caltech
Rockefeller Medical Publications online:
The Journal of Experimental Medicine
American Journal of Physiology
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Timeline of medical-pharmaceutical development in New York The New York Academy of Sciences was the primary publisher of bioweapons related microbiology (listed under ‘military medicine’) routed through Ft. Detrick. Today it’s headquarters are at the new World Trade Center 7.
The Rockefeller File, 1976 by Gary Allen
from ‘Murder By Injection’, Eustace Mullins, Chapter 10
….”The world financial structure, far from being an unknown or hidden organization, is actually well known and well defined. It consists of the major Swiss Banks; the survivors of the old Venetian-Genoese banking axis; the Big Five of the world grain trade; the British combine, centered in the Bank of England and its chartered merchant banks, functioning trough the Rothschilds and the Oppenheimers and having absolute control over their Canadian colony through the Royal Bank of Canada and the Bank of Montreal, their Canadian lieutenants being the Bronfmans, Belzbergs, and other financial operators; and the colonial banking structure in the United States, controlled by the Bank of England through the Federal Reserve System; the Boston Brahmin families who made their fortunes in the opium trade, including the Delanos and others and the Rockefeller Syndicate, consisting of the Kissinger network headquartered in the Rockefeller Bank, Chase Manhattan Bank, American Express, the present form of the old Rothschild representatives in the United States, which includes Kuhn, Loeb Company and Lehman Brothers.”…..
“… John D. Rockefeller was routinely caricatured by socialist propagandists as the epitome of the ruthless capitalist. At the same time, he was the principal financier of the world Communist movement, through a firm called American International Company. Despite the fact that the House of Rothschild had already achieved world control, the sound and fury was directed exclusively against its two principal, representatives, John D. Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan. One of the few revelations of the actual state of affairs appeared in Truth magazine, December 16, 1912, which pointed out that “Mr. Schiff is head of the great private banking house of Kuhn, Loeb & Company, which represents the Rothschild interests on this side of the Atlantic. He is described as a financial strategist and has been for years the financial minister of the great impersonal power known as Standard Oil.” Note that this editor did not even mention the name of Rockefeller.
“Because of these concealed factors, it was a relatively simple matter for the American public to accept the “fact” that the Rockefellers were the preeminent power in this country. This myth was actually clothed in the apparel of power, the Rockefeller Oil Trust becoming the “military-industrial complex” which assumed political control of the nation; the Rockefeller Medical Monopoly attained control of the health care of the nation, and the Rockefeller Foundation, a web of affiliated tax exempt creations, effectively controlled the religious and educational life of the nation. The myth succeeded in its goal of camouflaging the hidden rulers, the Rothschilds.”
The Rockefeller fights FAT:
Rockefeller University researchers find the “Obesity Gene”; News May 2011 “Scientists find ‘master switch’ gene for obesity
American Cancer Society (a Rockefeller establishment) states “It’s become increasingly clear that obesity is a factor in approx. a dozen different types of cancer –especially postmenopausal breast cancer in women and colorectal cancer in men”. The U.S. Army is the foremeost breast cancer research sponsor, and it is known that radiation (x-rays and mammography) is a leading cause of breast cancer.
The New England Journal of Medicine calls obesity the New Plague. From the NEJM, “Obesity – The New Public Health Frontier” (series 2002-2003). “The public health law posits…that government has both the power and the duty to regulate private behavior in order to promote public health. The constitutional source of this authority is the police power, which encompasses both directly coercive interventions and policies such as taxes and subsidies that shape behavior by altering the costs of certain choices”…..
[March 6, 2007] “LA JOLLA, CA – Knocking out the gene for a peptide associated with insulin secretion protects mice against the harmful effects of a high-fat diet, report researchers at the Salk Institute”…
Dr. Joseph Mercola and Dr. Mary Enig :
“Your brain is mainly made of fat and cholesterol. The lion’s share of the fatty acids in the brain are actually saturated. A diet that skimps on healthy saturated fats robs your brain of the raw materials it needs to function optimally”
[proper nerve signaling] ..”certain saturated fats, primarily those found in butter, lard, coconut oil and palm oil, function directly as signaling messengers that influence metabolism, including such critical jobs as the appropriate release of insulin”
“The fat content of lung surfactant (absolutely essential) is 100% saturated fatty acids. Replacement of these critical fats by other types of fat makes faulty surfactant and potentially causes breathing difficulties.”
“Saturated fat has been shown to protect the liver from alcohol and medications, including acetaminophen and other drugs commonly used for pain”..  –evidence that fructose consumption caused study participants to grow new fat cells around their vital organs
Radio Wave Gene Manipulation
May, 2012
“Some laboratory mice were given specially engineered insulin-producing genes. These genes were then remotely activated using radio waves. This could mean a whole new field of medical proceedures in which we turn genes on and off at will. This breakthrough is the work of geneticists at New York’s Rockefeller University… Admittedly..the researchers did first have to inject some nanoparticles onto the mice’s cells in order to affect their genes…
   “The radio waves are ideal for this sort of remote manipulation because they can pass through thick layers of tissue, and they can be easily focused…
Even better, the researchers have already developed a way to achieve similar, albeit weaker, results without having to inject nanoparticles at all. They have developed cells that can grow their own required nanoparticles… However, as Nature explains, this would still require growing tumors inside humans to actually get these cell cultures in place, which means the treatment isn’t yet ethically permissible in humans.”
Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology
James E. Darnell Jr. — “Darnell discovered RNA processing in human cells while he was a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1963.”; in 1974, he joined the Rockefeller. Darnell wrote RNA Life’s Indispensable Molecule that “describes how scientists unraveled fundamental questions about the biochemical and genetic importance of RNA—how mRNAs are generated and used to produce proteins, how noncoding and catalytic RNAs mediate key cellular processes, and how RNA molecules likely initiated life on Earth.”; His career has included poliovirus research with Harry Eagle at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, research with François Jacob at the Pasteur Institute in Paris and academic appointments at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Columbia University. In 1974 Dr. Darnell joined Rockefeller as Vincent Astor Professor, and from 1990 to 1991 he was vice  president for academic affairs.
Jeffrey M. Friedman and team performed the radio-wave gene manipulation work described above. Friedman trained under James E. Darnell and currently heads the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics.
Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior
“Dr. Pfaff’s research has demonstrate how steroid hormone effects on nerve cells can direct natural, instinctive behaviors. First, Dr. Pfaff is known for discovering exact cellular targets for steroid hormones in the brain. A system of hypothalamic and limbic forebrain neurons with sex hormone receptors, discovered in rodents, was later found to be present in species ranging from fish to primates. This hormone-sensitive system apparently is a general feature of the vertebrate brain, and Dr. Pfaff recently found that knocking out the gene for the estrogen receptor in animals prevents female reproductive behavior.” /
“The Heintz laboratory invented DNA engineering by homologous recombination in E. coli (a process now commonly referred to as “recombineering”) and demonstrated that engineered BAC transgenes can be reliably expressed in defined CNS cell types in vivo.” /

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